Before knowing the position of Jesus in Islam let’s know what Islam is and where does it come from? Islam means submission, obedience and peace.
Origin of Islam dates back to the first man and Prophet – Adam (pbuh) to live on the earth. (Yet it is new and up to date as it is renewed and updated in every age by the divine messages like the Torah, the Psalms, and the Gospel). Lastly it was updated 1400 years ago for all ages to come through the Holy Qur’an.
The divine source of updates is: Only one that is The Lord of the universe, Allah.
The best renowned exemplary models and preachers of this religion are: (It is said that 1,24000 prophets but 25 of them are mentioned in the last revelation, The Holy Qur’an) some of them are, Adam, Nooh, Ibrahim, Yaqoob, Yousuf, Moosa, Dawood, Solomon, Eesa and Muhammad (peace be upon them all).
The similarity between all of them is: Monotheism, (Lailaha illa Allah) Islam.
These Models are chosen by: Allah the Exalted. The first follower of Islam was: Adam (A.S)
This religion is meant for All people and all ages.
Allah the Exalted planned to create the man. Allah says, ”And remember when your Lord said to the angels : Verily I am going to create a Khalifa (vicergent) on the earth” The purpose of his (man’s) creation is to worship Him (Allah).
Allah says, “And I (Allah) created not the Jin and mankind except that they should worship Me (alone)”. Before creating the human beings Allah SWT created the whole universe for the human beings because they need earth and all creations, water, air, sky sun, moon, stars and other things for their survival.
Allah says, ”It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven ). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge.
After creating these things Allah created human beings Adam and Eve. Allah taught Adam everything necessary and told him to worship none than Him (Allah) and told him to be righteous and not to choose the wrong path. Allah the Exalted told Adam to instruct the same to his children. In this way he was the first man and the prophet. Some times for each and every clan a prophet were chosen. Sometimes for the whole nation one Prophet or Messenger were chosen, and sometimes for the whole age or era one prophet. Some times two or more at a time. The religion was same but the prophets or the messengers were changed with some additional instructions. Allah completed the religion with Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.S)
Jesus (Isa) Alaihissalam also was one of the beads of the chain of Prophets.
Prophet Isa, the son of Mary’s was a miraculous birth. He was a word or order given to Maryam (A.S) by Allah who was praised in the Holy Qur’an as the best of women, for her chastity.
Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’la says, “O Mary! Allah has chosen you and purified you, chosen you above the women of the worlds. O Mary! Pray to your Lord devoutly and prostrate yourself. And bow down with those who bow down.” (3:42-43)
After mentioning her chastity she was informed that she was chosen for bearing a child with extra ordinary qualities, named Eesa (A.S) who is honourable in both the worlds.
“O Maryam! Allah gives you glad tidings of a Word from Him, his name is the Messiah, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and in the Hereafter and of those nearest to Allah. He shall speak to the people when in the cradle and in manhood. And he shall be from the righteous. She said, ‘My Lord! How can I have a son when no man has touched me? He said; Even so, Allah creates what He pleases. When He decrees a matter He says to it: Be, –And it is. And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel.”
Though Isa was born without father yet Allah says He was a human being like Adam.
“Indeed, to Allah, the similitude of Isa is as that of Adam, Allah created him out of dust, then said to him: ‘Be’ and he was,” (3: 59). Allah the Exalted created Adam (A.S) without means of father or mother; He created Eve from Adam (means with a man) And He created messiah from Mary without Father. (Means with a woman) It means that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala doesn’t need any source for creation. He is Almighty He can create anything, any time.
Prophet Jesus – Significance
Prophet Jesus(pbuh) is one of the most significant personalities in Islam. Muslims believe in Jesus (peace be upon him – pbuh), the Prophet with equal fervour and enthusiasm as they do in Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). In fact, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is the successor of Prophet Jesus (pbuh).
Prophet Jesus (pbuh), son of the holy mother, Virgin Mary (pbuh) is in himself a miracle of God. He stands as a testimony of the Almighty’s power of Creation: He created Adam from clay, without any father, And also Jesus without any father, He creates what He wills.
Understanding the birth of Jesus, the Prophet is of extreme significance in human history. Muslims believe that Jesus (pbuh) was thus born without a father, and that he was nothing but a Prophet of God. Quran explains this miracle in its remarkable simple style. According to the Quran, Mary (pbuh) was a chaste woman, deeply devoted to God. While Mary (pbuh) was praying, an angel in the form of a man appeared before her. Filled with terror, she tried to flee, praying:
| “Verily! I seek refuge with the Most Beneficent (Allah) from you, if you do fear Allah.”
The angel said: “I am only a Messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son.”She said: “How can I have a son, when no man has touched me, nor am I unchaste?”
He said: “So (it will be), your Lord said: “That is easy for me (Allah): And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from Us (Allah), and it is a matter (already) decreed, (by Allah).'” (Quran – 19:18-21)
And thus was Jesus (pbuh) born to Virgin Mary (pbuh), without any father, by the will of God.
Prophet Jesus (pbuh) preached what was revealed to him from God Almighty namely the Holy Bible. He was awarded with many a miracles, the foremost being his birth without a father, secondly, he clearly spoke to people when he was just a child in a cradle. Thirdly, he cured many incurable diseases like blindness and lastly he raised the dead with God’s will and permission.
Islam emphasizes that Jesus was a mortal human being, like all other prophets, and that he was not killed by crucifixion or by any other means, although it appears so.
The Quran says: People of the Book. Do not go to excess in your religion. Say nothing but the truth about God. The Messiah, Jesus (pbuh) son of Mary (pbuh), was only the Messenger of God and His Word, which He cast into Mary, and a Spirit from Him. So believe in God and His Messengers. Do not say: “Three.” It is better that you stop. God is only One God. He is too glorious to have a son! Everything in the heavens and in Earth belongs to Him. God suffices as a Guardian. The Messiah would never disdain to be a servant to God, nor would the angels near to Him. If any disdain to worship Him and grow arrogant, He will, in any case, gather them all to Him. (Quran – 4:171-172)
The miracle from Allah the Almighty God is that Prophet Jesus (pbuh) himself spoke immediately after the birth. Holy Qur’an testifies to this fact:
- Then she (Mary) pointed to him(Jesus – pbuh)They said: “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?” “
- He [‘Iesa (Jesus)] said: Verily! I am a slave of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet;”
- “And He has made me blessed wheresoever I be, and has enjoined on me Salat (prayer), and Zakat, as long as I live.”
- “And dutiful to my mother, and made me not arrogant, wretched tyrant.”
- “And Salam (peace) be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!” (Quran – 19:29-33)
We cannot give Jesus the Divinity
The birth of Messiah was miraculous but he grew just as a normal human being.
He wore clothes made of wool he ate from leaves and had no home; neither had he accumulated wealth nor property, nothing he saved for tomorrow. It is said that he ate from the earning of his mother out of her spinning work.
Allah says in the Qur’an The Messiah (Isa ), son of Maryam (Mary), no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother Maryam was a ‘siddiqaha’ (i.e. she believed in the Words of Allah and His Books) they both used to eat food. Look how We make the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc) clear to them; yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth).(5:75)
In the above verse particularly they both used to eat food is mentioned. Food is the basic necessity of a human being without it human beings cannot survive.
The people who believe Messiah as God or God’s son must ponder about the point). It was prophesied in the infant hood of Jesus that he would be chosen as a Prophet and Book will be given to him. As Messiah was a suckling baby, people were accusing his mother of having the relation with Joseph bin Jacob Annajjar.
He spoke out to them miraculously: “I am indeed a slave of Allah: He has given me the Book and made me a Prophet, and He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and He has enjoined upon me prayers and to pay the alms, as long as I live. And (He has made me) kind to my mother, and He has not made me insolent unblessed. And peace be upon me, the day I was born, and the day I die, and on the day I shall be raised to life (19:30-33).
When he grew he was chosen as a Prophet and the Gospel also was given to him at the age of thirty.
”Most surely, the Messiah son of Mary was no more than a Messenger, many were the Messengers that have passed away before him, and his mother was a woman of righteousness. (5:75)
Abu Hraira (R.A) Narrated, I heard Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.S) said, “Both in this world and in the Hereafter, I am the nearest of all the people to (Isa) the son of Maryam (Mary), the Prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one (Islamic Monotheism) 4:652-Bukhari)
People did not believe him as the messenger but believed him as God, or the son of God. For the disbelievers who say that Jesus is God or the son of God, Allah says, “Most certainly they have disbelieved who say ‘Allah is the Christ, the son of Mary’ (5:17)
In another place Allah says,
“They say: Allah has begotten a son!’ Glory be to Him, He is Self Sufficient! His are all things in the heavens and on the earth” (10:68)
Jesus never told the Christians to believe him as God or God’s son but he said,
“O children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord, whoever ascribes partners with Allah, Allah will forbid him the Garden. And the Fire will be his abode, and wrongdoers will have no protectors.’
Allah says, “Most certainly they have disbelieved who say: Allah is One of Three.’ For there is no God (worthy of worship) but one God. And if they do not desist from what they say, surely, a painful chastisement shall befall the disbelievers among them.” (5:17)
The belief of trinity, God or God’s son is due to the miraculous birth of Jesus and his miracles like,
His birth without father. (Adam is the best example)
Speaking in the cradle while he was an infant. (two other infants from Bani Israel also spoke)
Curing the lepers and blind by birth. (3 & 4 these miracles are given to Messiah because in his age people were perfect in medicine and they were proud of their treatments. So Allah gave strange and greater miracles toIsa (AS) so that people may not deny of his Messenger ship). Giving life to the dead.
Getting a table of food from the sky etc., (Mann O Salwa during the period of Moses)
Miracles of Prophets
Some of the miracles of Jesus were like curing lepers and curing the blindness. Allah gave miracles to almost all the Prophets so that the people may believe in Allah and the teachings of those Prophets.
For example, The tempest in the age of Noah drowning everything except the ship of Noah with believers. Throwing Abraham (A.S) into the fire by the disbelievers and his escape from the fire and coming out of it without harm.
Parting of the ocean into two by making way in it and passing Moses with Israelites safely through it and drowning pharaoh and his companions. (If we read the story of Moses we will find numerous miracles) Getting out a pregnant camel out of a mountain at the demand of Prophet Saleh (pbuh)’s people when Saleh (pbuh) prayed to Allah.
Talking to plants, animals and birds, having control upon the wind and Jinns by Solomon (A.S). (Jesus walked on waters, Solomon flew in air).
The Israelites fled for the fear of plague and settled down in the plateau, their number exceeded thirty thousand. Allah said to them: “Die and they all fell dead. Then a fence was erected around them so that they were not eaten by wild animals. After a few centuries, Ezekiel passed by them. He stopped at them and stood in deep reflection. He was asked: Would you like that Allah may resurrect them while you are watching at them?” He said, “Yes” So he was commanded to call those bones to come back to life and have the flesh on. And that the muscles start joining each other. So he called them in the Name of Allah and all people with him arose and glorified Allah in the voice of one man.
The Holy Quran is the miracle given to Prophet Muhammed (S.A.W.S) and the split of moon by the finger of Prophet Mohammad (SA).
Allah further says about Jesus and his Mission he was sent with,
“And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel. And a Messenger to the Children of Israel; I have come to you with a sign from your Lord. I make for you out of clay a figure of a bird and I breathe into it. And it becomes a bird by Allah’s permission, and I heal those born blind and the lepers, and I quicken the dead by Allah’s permission, and I inform you of what you eat and what you store up in your houses. Surely, in this is a sign for you if you are believers. And confirming that which is before me of the Torah, and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you. I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear Allah and obey me”. (Quran 3:48-50)
Thus, if we check the history of Prophets as well as the Holy Qur’an, we will find lot of miracles. On behalf of these miracles we cannot raise Prophets to the rank of divinity
Prophecies of Jesus about Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon them all)
Jesus was the last of Israelite Prophets. He told them of the coming of the last of all Prophets, after whom the Prophet hood would be sealed. He not only gave the glad tidings of his coming soon, but he even informed them of the name of that Prophet. He gave them some elaborate signs with which they would recognize him. Allah says in the Qur’an,
“And when Jesus, son of Mary said: ‘O children of Israel! Surely, I am the Messenger of Allah to you, verifying that which was revealed before me in the Torah, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger who shall come after me, whose name shall be ‘Ahmed’. But when he came to them with clear signs, they said: ”This is mere magic’. And who is more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah, while he is being invited to Islam? And Allah does not guide the unjust people. They desire to extinguish Allah’s light with their mouths, but Allah has decreed to perfect His light, even though the disbelievers may detest it.” (61:6-8)
“Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet whom they find written about in their won scriptures, the Torah and the Gospel, he enjoins on them what is good and forbid them from what is wrong, and he makes the pure thing lawful to them. And forbids them from the impure, he relieves them from their burdens, and frees them from the fetters which were upon them. So those who believe in him, and support and help him, and follow the Light which has been revealed to him, those surely shall attain success.” (7:157)
Was Prophet Jesus (pbuh) Crucified?
Companion of Prophet Muhammed (pbuh), Abu Umamah (RA) narrated that Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.S) said, “I am the prayer of my father Abraham, and the glad tidings of Jesus. When Abraham built the Ka’bah, he prayed: ‘Our Lord! And send among them a Messenger from among them.”
And when Jesus came as the last Prophet of Israel, he delivered a sermon saying that the Prophet hood has come to an end among Israelites, and that the last Prophet of all will come after him, from among illiterate Arabs, whose name will be Ahmed. When Jesus (AS) delivered his Message, and called his people to the way of Allah, most of them did not follow him. They rebelled and rejected him. A group of them pious and righteous responded to his call and became his followers. They helped him and spread his Message. They also protected him from the evil of their people.
However, some of the Israelites viciously opposed him, and misled the kings of that time about him by providing false information. They plotted to kill and crucify him. But Allah protected him and saved him from their evil intention. He took him up (in the Heavens) to Himself from among them, and put his likeness on one of his people. They mistook him for Jesus and crucified him.
And when Jesus perceived their disbelief, he said: ‘Who will be my helpers in the cause of Allah? The disciples said: ‘We are the helpers in the cause of Allah, we believe in Allah, and bear witness that we are Muslims. Our Lord! We believe in what you have revealed, and we follow the Messenger, so write us down among those who bear witness.’
“And when they (the disbelievers) plotted (to kill Jesus) and Allah planned too. And Allah is the Best of those who plot. And when Allah said: ‘O Jesus! I will take you and lift you up to Me, and followed you above those who disbelieved until the Day of Resurrection. Then to Me shall you all return, and I shall judge between you in that which you dispute.” (3:54,55)
“And for their saying (in boast): ‘We killed Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah’: but they killed him not, nor crucified him. Only a likeness of that was shown to them. And those who differ therein are full of doubt, with no certain knowledge, but only follow mere conjecture, for of a surety they killed him not. But Allah lifted him up to Himself, and Allah is All Mighty, All-Wise. And there is none of the people of the Book, but will believe in him before his death, and on the Day of Judgment, he will be a witness against them.’’
Later they became three groups. One group, who are called Jacobites believe that it was God Himself among them who stayed with them as long as He wanted to, then went back to the heaven,. Another group who are called Nestorian
(Nasturiyah) believed that it was the son of Allah who was with them, and stayed among them as long as he wanted, and then Allah lifted him up. But the group of true believers said that he was the slave of Allah and His Messenger who stayed among them as long as he wanted, and then his Lord Allah took him up to Him. The two disbeliever groups joined together against the believer group and killed them, and so the real teachings of Islam taught by Jesus became obscure till Allah sent the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.S).
Return of Jesus before Dooms Day
As the Jews plotted to kill Jesus Allah raised him to the heaven. Allah says, “And there is none of the people of the Book, but will believe in him before his death, and on the Day of Judgement, he will be a witness against them”
This refers to the time when Jesus (AS) will descend to the earth before the Day of Judgement and kill the swine, break the cross, impose the Jizya (tax), and will not accept (any religion) except Islam.
“How will you be when the son of Maryam (Mary) (i.e ‘Isa(Jesus) descends amongst you and he will judge people (by the law of the Qur’an and not by the law of the Gospel)
Narrated Companion Hudhaifa (RA) I heard Allah’s Messenger Muhammed (pbuh) saying, “when Ad Dajjal appears, he will have fire and water along with him. What the people will consider as fire, will be cold water, and what the people will consider as cold water will be fire that will burn (things). So, if anyone of you comes across this, he should fall in the thing which will appear to him as fire, for in reality, it will be fresh cold sweet water.”
In another Hadith Abu Hurairah (RA) said that the Prophet (SA) said about Prophet Jesus: “He will stay for forty years on the earth”. He will descend on white minaret in Damascus after the morning prayer had been called. The Imam will offer him to lead the prayer. He will say:
“No! Some of you are leaders for each other”, Allah’s honour for this Ummah (nation)” According to another version, Jesus would say: “The prayer is called for you,” and then he will pray behind the Imam, then he will ride a alongside with other Muslims, and go in pursuit of Dajjal, he will find him and kill him with his hand.