Medina Charter of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Pluralism
By Sean William White
The Medina Charter serves as an example of finding resolution in a dispute where peace and pluralism were achieved not through military successes or ulterior motives but rather through respect, acceptance, and denunciation of war —aspects that reflect some of the basic tenets of the religion Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was guiding and promoting. Through an examination of the Medina Charter, I will show how pluralism was advanced and instituted in Medina, and the reasons reflecting on such a document could help avoid the divide and misunderstanding plaguing much thought, rhetoric, and media today between Muslims and non-Muslims all over the world.
When the Prophet was forced to immigrate to Medina, the population was “a mixture” of many different tribes (predominantly Arabic and Jewish), who had been fighting for nearly a century, causing “civil strife,” and it was for this reason that the Prophet was invited there, notes F.E. Peters in “Muhammad and the Origins of Islam.” In this region reigned power-hungry strategies, an emphasis on arms and strength in the military, and a belief that resolution of differences through mediation was clearly unachievable except by a trustworthy outsider who had no connections to the issues or the tribes. Not only did the Prophet fit these prerequisites, but his personal ambition as given to him by God was also one of spreading peace and unity, creating a community, made up of diverse groups, through the teachings of the Quran.
The Quran states that the Lord “teaches by the pen” (96:1-5). This is indicative of the Medina Charter in that it is a reflection of these verses, an example of how God is educating people and changing thought patterns through discourse, whether in speech or writing. In this case, the discussion resulted in peace achieved through mutual consultation, contemplation, and through seeking agreements in which tribes felt they had benefited from the charter and had not been robbed of status or undermined by unresolved antagonism from the past.
The mere formation of the Charter and the resultant peace were tremendous feats, and the content of the Charter itself reflects this magnitude. The formation of an ummah through respect and mutual acceptance resulting in pluralism shows us one of the ways in which the Prophet combated ignorance — the state of mind that causes violence and terror, as noted by Armstrong.
Examining some of the clauses in the Charter also shows how the Prophet managed to exemplify outstanding leadership and create a lasting peace. The first clause, “They are a single community,” depicts the ultimate message and goal of the rest of the charter, notes Amyn Sajoo in “Muslim Ethics: Emerging Vistas.” The Charter served as a unifying document in a city of diverse groups, cultures, religions, and languages.
Clause 25 epitomizes the level of tolerance in the charter and also serves as an example of Islam in practice. “The Jews … are a community (ummah) along with the believers. To the Jews their religion and to the Muslims their religion,” comments Sajoo about clause 25. This extraordinary tolerance ties in with the verse from the Quran (2:256) which says, “There is no compulsion in religion.” For in the eyes of God, as it says in the Quran “… those who believe … Jews, Christians, and Sabaeans … and does right — surely their reward is with their Lord” (2:62).
Despite the laws he introduced, the existing groups clearly did not feel threatened by his presence or his governance. The society was pluralistic, and it was not repressive. The Prophet — as clause 25 shows — never imposed Islam upon the people of Medina, which meant that they could still practice without disruption their religions and customs, aspects of life that were fundamentally important to them. He did not create an ummah through denouncing all ways of life except for Islam or by recognizing Islam as the singular religion; instead he united all inhabitants of the city under one banner of ethical living and moral principles — commonalities between all humans and all religions.
The Prophet drew upon the characteristics of unity, respect, tolerance, and love to create and administer a pluralistic community. Clause 40 exemplifies this: “The ‘protected neighbor’ is as the man himself so long as he does no harm and does not act treacherously,” notes Sajoo. People were safe and respected and free to follow and exercise their beliefs and would be protected in doing so. This protection, however, could not shield them from treachery or wrongdoing.
As indicated by Yildirim, the Medina Charter is arguably the first constitution ever written incorporating religion and politics. And even though the politics of the region have changed since it was written — in contemporary times for the worse — Islam’s values have continued to spread and are maintained throughout the whole Muslim world. Despite the deleterious hold of power that some governments still have over their people, the true face of Islam shines through in how people live, communicate, and approach life.
I speak from personal experience in having traveled through Iran, Turkey, and Northern Iraq in January, 2009. And despite what the media say about the people in those lands, my time there was spent in the houses of complete strangers who showered me with hospitality that transcended any I had previously experienced in my lifetime. Although the governing body has changed, the points of the Medina Charter and tenets of Islam preached by Prophet Muhammad still exist amongst the people.
My heritage was accepted with curiosity and respect — just as the Prophet implemented in Medina between the tribes. My place in the society was welcomed with honest enthusiasm, and I felt a part of a community — like the community that the Prophet implemented in Medina. I was exposed to mainstream Islam which we hear so little about in the West due to the confusion which unjustly joins Islam and extremism together. I saw tolerant Muslims who saw me as another person who wanted peace and respect, not treachery.
This is what the Prophet also accomplished in Medina — a community which was not based upon sectarian, partisan religion or ethnicity, but one built on unity and acceptance. One built on tolerance. One built on peace. It seems the Prophet was acutely aware that spirituality and faith cannot be legislated and forced, and for this reason, he sought unity and respect, eschewing discrimination based on ethnicity or belief.
The Medina Charter is very relevant to current tensions existing between the Muslims and non-Muslims. Unfortunately, it seems that ignorance and fear, suspicion and disrespect plague the interaction, and stereotypes hold sway between Muslims and non-Muslims. Sadly, people confuse the actions of extremist nationalists and fundamentalists who so unjustly hide behind a Holy Book claiming that their intentions are aligned with God and with what the religion teaches. The essence of all religions is the same, for they all teach kindness, mercy, and justice.
Peace was achieved in Medina, not through the might of arms or the scale of wealth, but through the unyielding principles of Islam — tolerance, mercy, reason, justice, and a belief in God. The Medina Charter, arguably the first charter ever written, shows that Islam rejects the use of compulsion and force in religion and, as has been demonstrated over centuries of human existence, that the most effective way to resolve conflicts is through mediation.
The Medina Charter is an example that should be discussed and referred to in current conflicts. The creation of such a tolerant community, or ummah, offers the promise and hope of high-minded pluralism. For people are not judged on their beliefs, but on their actions. Irrational discrimination and persecution are the instigator of all tensions, and reason and tolerance are the essence of all peace. Just as in the streets of Medina, through tolerance and respect, we too may one day have a world-wide community, where a passing non-Muslim will say, “Peace be upon you” to a Muslim, who will reply, “Peace be upon you too.”
Adapted from an article published in Message Magazine.
Sean William White has a degree in Islamic history from Monash University, Melbourne.
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